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  • 氫燃料電池卡車的底盤結構與運作原理

    • 2019-05-03 09:20
    • 來源:卡車之家

    摘要:氫燃料電池卡車最近頻繁出現在業內新聞上。對于這個新事物,大家聽的不少,但是它和電動車、柴油車的區別在哪里?車身結構是怎么樣的?運作原理又是什么?這些問題大多數卡友可能還不了解。

    氫燃料電池卡車最近頻繁出現在業內新聞上。對于這個新事物,大家聽的不少,但是它和電動車、柴油車的區別在哪里?車身結構是怎么樣的?運作原理又是什么?這些問題大多數卡友可能還不了解。

    ●  氫燃料電池車對比電動車 多了燃料電池和儲氫罐

    氫燃料電池卡車的底盤結構與運作原理

    我根據上海車展氫燃料電池卡車的底盤結構自己畫了張圖

    我們先從車身結構開始介紹,方便大家能有一個整體的認識。氫燃料電池卡車在大致結構上和電動卡車相似,一樣有電機、電控和電池,它多的就是一個燃料電池和儲氫罐。

    ●  氫燃料電池其實是一個發電裝置而不是蓄電裝置

    氫燃料電池卡車的底盤結構與運作原理

    氫燃料電池雖然被稱為電池,但實際上它是一個發電裝置


    氫燃料電池卡車的底盤結構與運作原理

    氫燃料電池通過氫氣和氧氣的化學反應發電

    氫燃料電池車的工作原理是:將氫氣送到燃料電池的陽極板(負極),經過催化劑(鉑)的作用,氫原子中的一個電子被分離出來,失去電子的氫離子(質子)穿過質子交換膜,到達燃料電池陰極板(正極),而電子是不能通過質子交換膜的,這個電子,只能經外部電路,到達燃料電池陰極板,從而在外電路中產生電流。

    電子到達陰極板后,與氧原子和氫離子重新結合為水。由于供應給陰極板的氧,可以從空氣中獲得,因此只要不斷地給陽極板供應氫,給陰極板供應空氣,并及時把水(蒸氣)帶走,就可以不斷地提供電能。

    燃料電池發出的電,經逆變器、控制器等裝置,給電動機供電,再經傳動系統、驅動橋等帶動車輪轉動,就可使車輛在路上行駛。

    由于多了這么一個發電裝置,氫燃料電池車的續航里程就有了顯著的提升,另外加氫的時間一般只需5分鐘,比充電時間快了許多倍。

    ●  成本高加氫難是目前困擾氫燃料電池車發展的問題

    氫燃料電池卡車的底盤結構與運作原理

    2017年11月上市的大通FCV80氫燃料電池車官方指導價130萬

    氫燃料電池卡車的底盤結構與運作原理

    上海車展上福田氫燃料輕卡裝了3個儲氫瓶,這瓶子一個5-6萬

    當然氫燃料卡車目前有利也有弊,最顯著的一個問題就是氫燃料卡車貴,比電動車貴很多。至于貴的原因,一是燃料電池系統成本過高,二是加氫站的儲/運氫成本高。

    燃料電池的成本高主要是由于燃料電池中的許多關鍵部件依舊需要從國外進口,部分商品處于壟斷地位,所以造價很高。

    氫燃料電池卡車的底盤結構與運作原理

    國內氫燃料卡車,目前普遍把儲氫罐安裝在車廂上,占用了載貨空間

    氫的儲運成本高,和氫氣的特性有關。氫氣1個標準大氣壓下的密度為0.0899克/升,熱值為1.4億焦/kg,也就是大約1公斤氫氣完全釋放能量有39度電,轉換效率最高60%,按輕卡標載(總重4.5噸)300公里80度電算需要3.45公斤氫氣,大約38375升體積,也就是要燒掉38方的氫氣。

    車上自然是不可能安裝那么大的儲氫罐的,這時候就需要加大儲氫罐內的壓力,縮小氫氣的體積。一般國內的儲氫罐采用的是35MPa的標準,也就是說儲氫罐內部可以達到350個大氣壓。裝上3個這樣的儲氫罐后加上車上的鋰電池,整車可以達到300多公里的續航里程。

    氫燃料電池卡車的底盤結構與運作原理

    一個高壓加氫站需要投資1000-1500萬元,且只能滿足200臺車的使用需求

    由于罐體內的壓力大,這類儲氫罐的制作成本非常高,一個瓶子5-6萬。相應的加氫站儲存氫氣同樣使用的是這種技術,據悉,在國內建設一個高壓加氫站需要投資1000-1500萬元,且只能容納約500公斤氫氣,成本很高且審批難。

    ●  雖說還有不少缺點 氫燃料電池卡車的未來卻十分美好

    雖說氫燃料電池卡車還存在不少問題,但是根據英國石油公司(BP)發布的能源技術展望報告預測,未來5-10年間氫燃料電池的制造成本會逐步下降到與汽油發動機持平的價格。

    在相關技術方面,2018年清華大學氫燃料電池實驗室與武漢一家科技公司的聯合研發團隊攻克了燃料電池關鍵材料催化劑產業化生產難題。目前,該催化劑獲得17項專利,且價格僅為進口產品一半。

    氫燃料電池卡車的底盤結構與運作原理


    濰柴與巴拉德合作簽約現場

    濰柴動力股份有限公司通過全資子公司濰柴動力(香港)國際發展有限公司以1.64億美元認購加拿大巴拉德動力系統有限公司(19.9%股份完成交割,正式成為巴拉德第一大股東。巴拉德是一家位于加拿大的全球氫燃料電池領軍企業。

    氫燃料電池卡車的底盤結構與運作原理

    氫燃料電池卡車的底盤結構與運作原理

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