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  • 牛津大學揭秘全固態電池故障原因 或實現量產

    • 2019-09-04 08:27
    • 來源:蓋世汽車

    摘要:據外媒報道,全固態電池是一種所有部件都是固體的電池,由于其能夠存儲更多能量,而且具備操作更安全的潛力,已成為替代鋰離子電池的下一代電池,受到了人們的關注。

    據外媒報道,全固態電池是一種所有部件都是固體的電池,由于其能夠存儲更多能量,而且具備操作更安全的潛力,已成為替代鋰離子電池的下一代電池,受到了人們的關注。如果固態電池能夠實現量產,將能夠給電動汽車(EV)行業帶來革命性的變化,因為其可有效增加電動汽車的續航里程,以及可以顯著降低電動汽車體積和重量。但是,固態電池在實際電流下循環(反復充放電)后會發生故障,這也是阻礙其實現大規模商業化的障礙之一。

    牛津大學揭秘全固態電池故障原因 或實現量產

    不過,英國牛津大學(the University of Oxford)法拉第研究所(Faraday Institution)的研究人員采取了措施,了解了固態電池出現故障的機制(是避免其出現此類故障的必要前提)。電池在充電時,鋰離子還原時形成的樹枝狀金屬鋰就是枝晶,會穿過固態、陶瓷和電解質繼續蔓延,從而導致電池短路。

    很久之前,研究人員就知道固態電池的陽極會產生孔隙,但是人們還沒有理解此類孔隙在枝晶形成過程中的作用。該研究將前沿電化學和成像技術相結合,基本能夠理解孔隙在電池循環中形成,以及孔隙在電池枝晶生長以及電池故障中的作用。

    研究固態電池的科學家面臨兩個挑戰:1、當電池在充電和不充電狀態之間循環時,需要防止枝晶生長。2、固體電解質和鋰陽極(帶負電荷的電極)在放電過程中會形成孔隙,導致電池兩部分之間的接觸面積減少。

    使用兩個普通電極的電池很難區分鋰電鍍和鋰剝離的過程,因此該研究的研究人員采用了三極電池,分別研究了在鋰金屬/陶瓷界面處鋰電鍍和鋰剝離過程對電池循環的影響,而且選用Li6PS5Cl作為固體電解質,此類硫化物的電導率比氧化物高,一些試圖實現固態電池商業化的公司都將其作為電解質。與其他高導電性的硫化物相比,該硫化物不那么易碎。

    研究人員發現,如果要避免在固態電池內形成枝晶,就需要在鋰離子剝離(CCS)過程中,控制在關鍵電流密度之下(即開始形成孔隙的臨界電流密度)進行電池循環。即使電流密度低于鋰電鍍過程中枝晶形成時的閾值,也是如此。當電流密度大于CCS時的電流密度,電池循環中會累積孔隙,固體電解質的接觸面積相應減小,導致局部電流密度增大,直至形成枝晶,導致電池短路和故障。

    雖然小型、不可二次充電的商用固態電池越來越多,例如用于心臟檢測等醫療植入物等。但是,電動汽車需要量產的固態電池,以確保其能夠在電動汽車使用壽命內安全運行,且達到可接受的性能水平,現在量產固態電池仍存在相當大的挑戰。

    目前電動汽車中采用的鋰離子電池包含易燃有機液體電解質,在電池充放電過程中,攜帶電荷的鋰離子會穿過電解質,此類液體存在安全隱患,將固態電解質取代液態電解質就可以消除火災風險。

    全世界的科學家都在努力研發新型電池化學物質,以讓電池達到一定的性能(功率密度和能量密度),從而讓電動汽車的駕駛體驗與內燃機汽車的體驗相當。研發具有鋰金屬陽極的先決條件就是消除液體電解質,從而顯著提升電池性能。

    牛津大學揭秘全固態電池故障原因 或實現量產

    網友評論文明上網理性發言,請遵守評論服務協議
    賬號登錄注冊后參與評論

    動力電池行業 電池聯盟:9月動力電池裝車量4GWh 中航鋰電升至第三

    9月,我國動力電池產量共計7.6GWh,環比增長14.7%,同比增長9.7%。
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    動力電池行業 固態電池能否取代鋰電池?

    在未來的發展中傳統鋰電池會被“洗”掉,而固態電池雖然由于種種困難不能實現量產,但它只需在時間里等待開花結果。
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    動力電池行業 產業化加速 造車新勢力“偏愛”固態電池

    固態電池作為下一代重要的新型技術路線之一,一直被寄予厚望。固態電池的新能源汽車商業化進程在持續加速。
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    2019年1-8月,我國動力電池裝車量累計38.2GWh,其中,三元電池裝車量累計26.1GWh,占總裝車量68.4%;磷酸鐵鋰電池裝車量累計11.0GWh,占總裝車量28.8%。
    關鍵字: 動力電池
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    動力電池行業 鋰電:新能源汽車發展首選動力

    10月9日,萬人矚目的2019年諾貝爾化學獎終于揭曉,來自美日等國的三名科學家因“開發鋰離子電池”,共同分享900萬克朗獎金。這一世界級的獎項,引起了新能源電池行業的巨大轟動。
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    電車資源2019年活動排期
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