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  • 【分析】電動客車的電磁兼容問題及EMC要求

    • 2016-11-09 17:19
    • 來源:重慶車檢院

    摘要:電動客車由于增加了DC/AC逆變器、DC/DC變換器、驅動電機以及充電機等高壓大功率電子電氣設備等在整流、變頻、變流時所產生的電磁干擾使得電動客車的電磁兼容(EMC)問題變得更為嚴重。

    相比于傳統客車,電動客車由于增加了DC/AC逆變器、DC/DC變換器、驅動電機以及充電機等高壓大功率電子電氣設備,且在其行駛過程中頻繁加速、減速及上下坡的同時,需要進行電源變換和能量回饋,這些設備在整流、變頻、變流時所產生的電磁干擾使得電動客車的電磁兼容(EMC)問題變得更為嚴重。由于電動客車電氣設備種類多,工作電流大、線束長,工作工程中車載電氣設備的電壓、電流會出現劇烈變化,所形成的浪涌電流或尖峰電壓可通過電源線、信號線和控制線等直接傳人其它電氣部件及整車的CAN總線通信網絡中,形成傳導干擾;由于其自身或外界(如雷電、廣播臺、手機基站等)發射的電磁能量還可以通過空間傳播方式被車載天線、線纜和孔縫等耦合進入車載敏感電子設備,帶來電磁輻射干擾問題。

    由于電磁兼容性問題具有看不見、摸不著以及隨機的特性,因此,電動客車運行中更容易出現“莫名其妙”的故障,影響其某些功能的正常運行和安全行駛。國內現行與電動汽車/客車整車相關的EMC標準主要有:GB 14023《車輛、船和內燃機無線電騷擾特性用于保護車外接收機的限值和測量方法》、GB/T 18387《電動車輛的電磁場輻射強度的限值和測量方法寬帶9kHz~30MHz》和GB 18655《車輛、船和內燃機無線電騷擾特性用于保護車載接收機的限值和測量方法》和GB/T 19951《道路車輛靜電放電產生的電騷擾試驗方法》。目前在汽車“公告”和3C管理中,電動汽車必須滿足GB 14023、GB/T 18387 和GB 18655的要求。電動汽車出口認證通常按照72/245/EEC指令《有關車輛的無線電騷擾(電磁兼容性)》或ECE Rl0法規《關于就電磁兼容性方面批準車輛的統一規定》進行整車及零部件電磁兼容性能的測試和評價。國內目前正在參照IS0 11451《道路車輛整車對窄帶輻射電磁能的抗擾試驗方法》和IS0 11452《道路車輛窄帶輻射電磁能量產生的電騷擾零部件試驗方法》制定汽車整車及零部件的電磁抗干擾測試標準。

    電動客車的動力系統一般都采用300V以上的高電壓系統,主要包括驅動電機、驅動電機控制器、直流轉換器(高壓直流變低壓直流)、高壓電池包,還有部分車輛采用高壓電動空調壓縮機、高壓充電機等,這些零部件內部一般還含有用于控制高電壓通斷的低電壓工作元器件。除動力驅動系統以外,電動客車的整車控制器、儀表、燈光、ABS、雨刮、自動門等常規零部件還是采用與常規客車相同的低電壓系統(一般采用12V或者24V)。

    對于電動客車的高壓零部件系統和低壓零部件系統,國內現行電磁兼容(EMC)標準主要包括:GB 18655《車輛、船和內燃機無線電騷擾特性用于保護車載接收機的限值和測量方法》、GB/T 21437.2《道路車輛由傳導和耦合引起的電騷擾第2部分:沿電源線的電瞬態傳導》、GB/T 19951《道路車輛靜電放電產生的電騷擾試驗方法》和GB/T 17619《機動車電子電器組件的電磁輻射抗擾性限值和測量方法》。由于在零部件內部以及整車高電壓系統和低電壓系統之間通常是隔離開的,所以在GB 18655、GB/T 2143 7.2和GB/T 17619等標準中的傳導測試中沒要求對高電壓系統零部件的高壓線束進行測試;但在GB 18655和GB/T 17619的輻射測試中應還是應將高壓線束與低壓線束放置在一起進行測試。

    電動客車比常規客車還增加了一個特殊的零部件,這就是與外部電網相連的充電系統,國家標準GB/T 18487.2《電動車輛傳導充電系統電動車輛與交流直流電源的連接要求》在第9章中對電動客車充電系統的電磁兼容性作了專門要求;新版的歐盟指令ECE  R10.04《關于就電磁兼容性方面批準車輛的統一規定》中已經增加了針對電動車耦合到電網的可充電能量儲存系統充電模式的測試要求。

    電動客車經過最近幾年的快速發展,涉及到整車的標準已比較齊全。但對于電動客車零部件,無論是國內還是國外,其EMC標準都還不夠完善,還在不斷研究和制定中。


    【論壇】第三屆中國新能源汽車總工技術峰會暨第二屆運營商與車企對接采購交流會

    2016年12月21-23日,第三屆中國新能源汽車總工技術峰會暨第二屆運營商與車企對接采購交流會將在深圳中海凱驪酒店隆重召開。本次峰會由電動汽車資源網主辦,以“后補貼時代技術創新發展思路”為主題,探討領域既涵蓋整車、動力電池系統、驅動系統及其他零部件等產品安全可靠性設計和測試評價等技術性話題,又兼具新能源汽車運營模式等市場性話題,是中國新能源汽車行業產、學、研、用相結合的一次行業盛會。一場新能源汽車技術與市場深度融合的千人大會,誠邀您報名參加(點擊進入報名通道>>)!咨詢電話:0755-22917542  13430607232 

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