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  • 電磁兼容在客車上使用的要求——整車要求及與零部件對EMC的性能關系

    • 2016-11-09 17:12
    • 來源:重慶車檢院

    摘要:隨時汽車電子化、智能化程度的提高,出現EMC問題的幾率越來越高,甚至可能會影響到車輛的舒適性和行車安全。

    (一)客車電磁兼容問題概述

    一輛客車行駛中遇到下雨,駕駛員啟動刮水器時,客車乘客門卻“莫名其妙”地自動打開了,有時ABS也“莫名其妙”地自動產生動作;某客車每次行駛到某路段附近時,“莫名其妙”地自動熄火,但拖離該路段后卻又能正常行駛。當面對這些“莫名其妙”的問題,又“查不出”是什么原因時,很可能就是汽車的電磁兼容(ElectromagneticCompatibility,簡稱EMC)問題。

    汽車EMC問題包括EMI(電磁干擾)及EMS(抗電磁干擾)兩方面的要求:一方面汽車在正常行駛狀態下產生的電磁干擾不能超過一定的限值;另一方面汽車能抵御環境中一定強度電磁干擾的能力。電磁干擾看不見摸不著,難以察覺,出現問題后很難查找。有電磁干擾信號時才會引發上述“莫名其妙”的故障,一旦電磁干擾信號消失,車輛行駛就恢復正常。隨時汽車電子化、智能化程度的提高,出現EMC問題的幾率越來越高,甚至可能會影響到車輛的舒適性和行車安全。

    任何電子電器部件在工作時都可能對其它電子電器設備產生電磁干擾,它自身也可能會受到周圍電磁環境的干擾。可以說,只要有電子電器件,就面臨著電磁兼容問題。客車的電子電器部件主要包括電子燃油噴射、電子點火系統、尾氣凈化控制系統、制動防抱死系統、電動助力轉向、衛星定位系統、行駛記錄儀、車載DVD、車載移動電視、車載空調、電子路牌、電子報站器、發動機艙火災報警器等。

    (二)客車整車的EMC要求

    國外對汽車整車的EMC要求主要包括:歐盟理事會72/245/EEC指令《有關車輛的無線電干擾(電磁兼容)》、歐洲經濟委員會ECE R10法規《關于就電磁兼容性方面批準車輛的統一規定》、CISPR 12《車輛、船和內燃機無線電騷擾特性用于保護車外接收機的限值和測量方法》、CISPR 25《車輛、船和內燃機無線電騷擾特性用于保護車載接收機的限值和測量方法》、IS0 11451《道路車輛窄帶輻射電磁能量產生的電騷擾整車試驗方法》、SAE J551-5《電動車輛的電場和磁場強度的性能水平和測量方法寬帶9kHz~30 MHz》等。

    目前汽車EMC出口認證通常按照72/245/EEC指令或ECE R10法規來進行測試評價。實際上72/245/EEC指令和ECE R10法規都對整車寬帶發射、窄帶發射和抗干擾三個測試項目作了技術要求,且測試條件和限值要求完全相同,兩者僅在某些信息文件和管理條款上有所差異。CISPR 12著重對整車的寬帶發射騷擾和窄帶發射騷擾性能提出要求。CISPR 25主要考察汽車整車及零部件產生的各種電磁騷擾對車載接收機的傳導和輻射電磁干擾。ISO 11451對汽車整車的電磁抗干擾性能提出了測試方法和評價指標。SAE J551-5對電動汽車引起的電磁騷擾特性提出了限值和測試方法。

    目前我國強制執行的汽車EMC標準主要包括:CB 14023《車輛、船和內燃機無線電騷擾特性用于保護車外接收機的限值和測量方法》、GB/T 18655《車輛、船和內燃機無線電騷擾特性用于保護車載接收機的限值和測量方法》和GB/T 18387《電動車輛的電磁場發射強度的限值和測量方法,寬帶,9kHz~30MHz》。其中GB 14023等同于CISPR 12; GB/T 18655等同于CISPR 25;GB/T 18387等同于SAE J551-5。目前國家工信部的汽車“公告”管理把這3個標準都列為了強制性檢驗項目,但國家認監委的汽車3C檢驗僅強制執行了GB 14023和GB/T 18387。國內還未頒布針對汽車整車電磁抗干擾性能的標準,這導致整車廠家在進行出口EMC認證檢測時,除了要滿足“公告”或3C的要求以外,還必須要增加電磁抗干擾性能的檢測項目。這一點在出口汽車的設計階段就應注意。

    (三)客車整車及其零部件電磁兼容性能的關系

     由于電子技術的迅猛發展,諸如衛星定位導航系統、汽車制動防抱死系統、輪胎氣壓監測系統、倒車雷達、車載移動數字電視、行駛記錄儀等已廣泛裝配于客車上,再加上發動機點火系統、起動電機、發電機、刮水器電機、洗滌器電機、組合儀表、暖風電機、空調電動門泵、車載接收機等傳統電器零部件的普遍應用,特別是電動汽車的驅動電機及其控制器、DC/DC變換器、整車控制器等,致使車載電子電器間的電磁干擾信號很強,不但直接影響其各自功能的實現,而且對周圍環境也帶來了不良影響。因此,國內外都對汽車整車及電子電器零部件實施了強制性的電磁兼容認證制度。但因部分廠家不了解或不重視電磁兼容問題,往往導致整車電磁兼容性能達不到相關標準法規的要求,這就給企業帶來了新的挑戰。其實客車整車電磁兼容性能與其零部件電磁兼容性能關系緊密,正確把握它們之間的關系,并預先采取相關的技術措施,可以起到事半功倍的效果。

    評價考核客車整車電磁兼容性能通常包括寬帶輻射發射、窄帶輻射發射和輻射抗擾度這三方面的內容,而評價分析零部件電磁兼容性的項目要豐富得多,主要有寬帶輻射發射、窄帶輻射發射、輻射抗擾度、傳導發射、傳導抗擾度、靜電放電及傳導瞬態抗擾度等。很顯然,客車EMC問題的解決應從車載零部件著手,各個零部件都達到相關EMC技術指標要求,是實現整車電磁兼容性能的首要條件。其次,還必須將各個車載零部件安裝在整車上進行EMC匹配試驗,以實現整車滿足EMC技術指標的要求。因此,整車廠家需要實施一套規范的車載零部件及整車的電磁兼容性能質量管控體系。在明確整車需要達到的EMC技術指標后,在開發零部件和整車的過程中制定詳細的EMC測試評價指標,嚴格執行零部件和整車的EMC性能分階段考核評價體系,最終實現整車EMC性能滿足相關標準法規的目標。


    【論壇】第三屆中國新能源汽車總工技術峰會暨第二屆運營商與車企對接采購交流會

    2016年12月21-23日,第三屆中國新能源汽車總工技術峰會暨第二屆運營商與車企對接采購交流會將在深圳中海凱驪酒店隆重召開。本次峰會由電動汽車資源網主辦,以“后補貼時代技術創新發展思路”為主題,探討領域既涵蓋整車、動力電池系統、驅動系統及其他零部件等產品安全可靠性設計和測試評價等技術性話題,又兼具新能源汽車運營模式等市場性話題,是中國新能源汽車行業產、學、研、用相結合的一次行業盛會。一場新能源汽車技術與市場深度融合的千人大會,誠邀您報名參加(點擊進入報名通道>>)!咨詢電話:0755-22917542  13430607232 

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