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  • 送檢新能源汽車如何一次性通過電磁兼容(EMC)測試?

    • 2016-06-25 09:16
    • 來源:電動汽車資源網 雷洪鈞
    • 發表評論 1

    摘要:業內朋友在議論,最近送檢新能源汽車通過的很少,主要原因是EMC這個大項目通不了。為此,我特意去了重慶市電磁兼容工程技術中心進行實地參觀學習,請教了專家老師,在此結合自己工作體會。

    【文/電動汽車資源網特約作者 雷洪鈞】業內朋友在議論,最近送檢新能源汽車通過的很少,主要原因是EMC這個大項目通不了。為此,我特意去了重慶市電磁兼容工程技術中心進行實地參觀學習,請教了專家老師,在此結合自己工作體會,說說自己的觀點和建議,供同行參考。

    1.什么是EMC

    電磁兼容(EMC)是對電子產品在電磁場方面干擾大小(EMI)和抗干擾能力(EMS)的綜合評定,是產品質量最重要的指標之一。

    這當然是一項技術含量很高、專業很強的技術工作。汽車廠家自己能做這項工作,據專家介紹,國內目前只有比亞迪一家具備這個能力,其他廠家還沒有。

    下面是重慶市電磁兼容工程技術中心的(EMC)測試間。

     

     

     

    二、電磁兼容的測量由測試場地和測試儀器組成

    EMC包含兩大項:EMI(干擾)和 EMS(敏感度,抗干擾)。EMI測試項包括:RE(輻射,發射),CE(傳導干擾),Harmonic(諧波),Flicker (閃爍);EMS測試項包括:ESD (靜電),EFT(瞬態脈沖干擾),DIP(電壓跌落),CS(傳導抗干擾),RS(輻射抗干擾),Surge(浪涌,雷擊),PMS(工頻磁場搞擾度)。

    三、 汽車EMC測試要求:

    一方面汽車在正常行駛狀態下產生的電磁干擾不能超過一定的限值;另一方面汽車能抵御環境中一定強度電磁干擾的能力。汽車電磁干擾不能超過一定的限值和抵御環境中一定強度電磁干擾的能力有關標準的規定。主要標準有:

    國際電工委員會IEC和CISPR系列標準(IEC61000-4-2,IEC 61000-4-3,CISPR 11,CISPR12,CISPR14,CISPR15,CISPR22,CISPR25);

    國際標準化組織ISO系列標準(ISO7637,ISO10605,ISO11451,ISO11452);

    歐洲地區機動車EMC指令法規和北美SAE系列標準(ECER10,97/24/EC,72/245/EEC(2004/104/EC),EN 55011,EN55012,EN55014,EN55015,EN55022,EN55025,SAEJ551,SAEJ1113);

    國內車輛及工科醫設備EMC標準(GB14023,GB18655,GB/T18387,GB/T19951,GB/T17619,GB/T21437,GB4824,GB9254,GB4343,GB17743,GB/T17626.2,GB/T 17626.3);

    汽車制造商的企業EMC標準(比如福特的ES-XW7T-1A278-AC,通用的GMW3172、GMW097,大眾的VWTL 80101、VW TL 82066,標致的PSA B217090、PSAB217110,本田的Honda 3982Z-SDA-0030,現代的Hyundai ES39110-00、Hyundai ES 96100-01等)。

    四、汽車電磁兼容(ElectromagneticCompatibility問題的表象

    汽車電磁干擾看不見摸不著,難以察覺,出現問題后很難查找。但是常見現象有:

    ⑴車輛每次行駛到某路段附近時,自動熄火,但拖離該路段后卻“莫名其妙”又能正常行駛;

    ⑵有時ABS也“莫名其妙”地自動產生動作;

    ⑶客車乘客門無故的卻自動打開。

    以上現象無規律發生,工程師檢查半天有找不出故障的原因。如何經常有以上現象,可以基本明確是汽車電磁兼容問題。

    五、汽車電磁兼容(ElectromagneticCompatibility問題的基本原因

    (1)只要有電子電器件,就面臨著電磁兼容問題。任何電子電器部件在工作時都可能對其它電子電器設備產生電磁干擾,它自身也可能會受到周圍電磁環境的干擾。這是大道理。

    (2)客車的電子電器部件有:要包括、電機、電子燃油噴射、電子點火系統、尾氣凈化控制系統、制動防抱死系統、電動助力轉向、衛星定位系統、行駛記錄儀、車載DVD、車載移動電視、車載空調、電子路牌、電子報站器、發動機艙火災報警器等。

    ⑶電磁干擾問題主要是因為不適當的接地引起的。

    六、解決汽車電磁兼容問題思路

    整車廠的總成件(零部件)是合格供應商提供的,要消除整車電磁兼容問題。第一步,必須選擇高品質的總成件(零部件);第二步,生產工藝上解決好,眾多的電子電器部件科學接“地”,保障有一個共同的“地”,第三,派有(電工、電磁學背景)專人技術人員全程參與向重慶市電磁兼容工程技術中心這的專業測試機構的測試過程;第四、有條件的整車廠,要配套基本測試設備和專業技術人員,開展這方面的工作。

    七、汽車上的“地”參考點是車架(身)

    基本做法是先將各種不同的線路的接地線匯集到專門的接地點上,再將所有的接地點接到總結地點上。電子電器部件接地方法:單點、多點和混合。

    (1)在開關電路頻率低于1MHz時,可采用單點接地方法,但不適宜高頻;

    (2)在高頻應用中,最好采用多點接地。

    (3)混合接地是低頻用單點接地,而高頻用多點接地的方法。

    (4)地線布局是關鍵,高頻數字電路和低電平模擬電路的接地電路盡不能混合。

    送檢新能源汽車要一次性通過電磁兼容(EMC)測試,想法是好的,但是產品設計工作和工藝要求必須要到位。我的觀點是,工作到位了,要一次性通過電磁兼容(EMC)測試是有可能的。作為規范的新能源汽車生產企業有義務和責任,自己的產品一定要國家要求的強制檢測,當然含要一次性通過電磁兼容(EMC)測試在內。

    版權聲明:本文為電動汽車資源網特約作者撰寫,版權為電動汽車資源網(http://www.absalus.com/)所有,轉載請務必注明出處(電動汽車資源網)及特約作者,否則必將追究法律責任。

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