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  • 倪新宇:電動汽車安全與電磁兼容

    • 原創
    • 2016-05-15 17:16
    • 來源:電動汽車資源網 孫振梅

    摘要:15日下午,襄陽檢測中心倪新宇主任作為重要嘉賓參加并在做重要演講,倪新宇的演講主題為“電動汽車安全與電磁兼容”。

    2016年5月14—15日,2016新能源汽車運營商與車企對接采購交流會暨論壇(以下簡稱“對接采購交流會”)在山西太原隆重召開。本屆對接采購交流會由太原不銹鋼產業園區管委會、太原市經濟和信息化委員會主辦,山西原野汽車制造有限公司和電動汽車資源網承辦,主要探討新能源汽車推向市場的現狀、前景、障礙及解決方案。500多家新能源汽車產業鏈知名企業專家將匯集于此為車企及運營商解決國補、地補融資問題,為運營商解決車輛擔保融資問題,為車企解決車輛銷售問題。同時,網羅2016年各新能源租賃運營企業整車采購需求近10萬臺,拓展新能源汽車在各個城市落地銷售。電動汽車資源網作為對接采購交流會承辦方和電動汽車行業專業網上平臺,對本次對接采購交流會做全面回顧和總結。

    15日下午,襄陽檢測中心倪新宇主任作為重要嘉賓參加并在做重要演講,倪新宇的演講主題為“電動汽車安全與電磁兼容”。

    以下是倪新宇演講的主要內容:

    一、電動汽車安全與電磁兼容

    電動汽車起火事件:

    ●廈門金旅混動公交起火

    ●上海申沃超級電容公交起火

    ●深圳五洲龍電動客車

    ●廈門混動公交起火11輛車燒毀1人死亡

    ●廈門金龍混動公交車起火自燃

     

    為什么電動汽車總是起火?

    ●電磁干擾可能會造成充電失控

    ●電磁干擾可能會干擾心臟起搏器

    ●強電磁輻射會干擾周圍環境電氣設備

    ●強電磁輻射會對人體帶來傷害

    ●電磁干擾可能會造成車輛運行失控

    ●電動汽車既有汽車屬性更有電氣屬性,電氣安全不容小覷!電磁兼容也不容小覷!

    ☆高壓的器件包括電機控制器、驅動電機等系統,電動汽車電磁兼容性比傳統車更難控制。

    ☆一些開關器件(IGBT)也會產生很大的諧波和高頻信號,這些高頻信號輻射增加了控制單元和傳感器抗干擾的難度。

    ☆有一本雜志叫做《安全與電磁兼容》,直接將安全與電磁兼容聯系起來。

    ☆未來的汽車將進入自動駕駛、無人駕駛汽車、車聯網、電氣化時代,電子產品越來越多應用在汽車上,面臨的電磁兼容挑戰將越來越多。

    輻射源:電機控制器BMS、車載充電機DC/DC、油泵及電機、動力電池組、氣泵及電機、驅動電機系統。

    二、電動汽車的電磁輻射源與測試標準

    1.強電磁輻射可能會對人體造成傷害比如體溫升高

    2.電磁輻射會干擾心臟起搏器工作,IEC62764

    3.電磁輻射會干擾車載電子設備的正常運行GB/T18655就是研究這方面的標準正在修訂

    4.電磁輻射會干擾周圍環境和車輛的電子設備GB/T14023就是研究這方面的標準

    5.電動汽車最大的輻射源來自電機及其控制器

    GB/T 184882015 對此也有研究正在起草新的標準

    6.電動汽車電磁兼容性比傳統車挑戰更加嚴峻,因為它不僅騷擾周圍環境,也會受到周圍輻射的騷擾

    ECER10對電動汽車電磁兼容提出全面的要求,欲轉化

    ★迄今為止,新能源汽車電磁兼容檢測的結果并不盡如人意;

    ★從今年年初開始的騙補風波,也波及到檢測機構的公信力;

    ★工信部不僅對電池行業進行規范,同時也對檢測機構的行為進行規范;

    ★現在,檢測機構對電磁兼容的檢測越來越規范,想通過檢測未必容易;

    ★檢測機構對前來送檢的企業可能會拒絕,原因就是不想惹麻煩。

     

    關鍵騷擾源有哪些?

    (1)電池包

    ①電池管理系統在整車試驗中是窄帶發射的騷擾源

    是抗擾試驗的主要敏感設備

    (2)電機及控制器

    電機及控制器是整車最大的騷擾源

    電機軸上產生騷擾影響傳感器

    影響低壓系統的工作

    (3)DC/DC

    DC/DC的騷擾特性由于開關器件成為主要騷擾源

    (一)發射特性

    ●國際公認電動汽車的主要騷擾源是電驅動系統;

    ●大部分不合格電動汽車的原因在于電驅動系統;

    ●從某些電機控制器和電機摸底情況看,電驅動系統存在很大騷擾。

    (二)抗擾特性

    ●電驅動系統是電動汽車的核心部分,其抗干擾性與電動汽車的安全息息相關;

    ●電驅動系統中ECU單元是敏感設備,容易被變流裝置和外部的干擾源干擾,從而引發異常事故。

     

     

     

     

     

     

    試驗結果:

     

    ●測試狀態:電機扭矩100Nm,轉速分別設置為300rpm,700rpm,1000rpm。

    ●電機轉速變化對高壓電源線傳導發射測試結果影響比較小

     

    ●測試狀態:電機轉速1000rpm,扭矩分別設置為0Nm,100Nm。

    ●電機扭矩的變化對傳導發射有一定的影響

     

    ●測試狀態:電機扭矩100Nm,轉速分別設置為300rpm,700rpm,1000rpm。

    ●不同的轉速變化,在該頻段測試結果基本一致

     

    ●測試狀態:電機轉速700rpm,扭矩分別設置為0Nm,100Nm。

    ●100Nm時輻射比0Nm時輻射發射有明顯的增加,整體增加約8dB左右。

    現在的標準制定情況也不盡如人意:

     

    國內情況看,現如今沒有一個標準明確的高壓部件的試驗方法的描述。 

    制定標準:

     

    規范的主要內容:

    (1)試驗條件設置

    ●高壓線纜的屏蔽

    ●高壓和低壓線纜之間的距離、線纜與測試接地平板的相對位置

    ●接地方式

    ●CAN線的布置方式

    ●電機的轉速、扭矩

    ●自動測試

    (2)試驗對象

    電機控制器

    ●模擬負載配置

    ●電機控制器的工作狀態

    電池包

    ●充電過程(剩余電量、充電電流等參數)

    DC/DC

    ●單獨進行試驗的技術方案

    (3)試驗方法

    傳導發射

    ●高壓系統對低壓系統的耦合

    ●高壓傳導限制

    輻射發射

    ●測試方法及限值要求

    抗擾試驗

    ●測試方法及等級

    三、電動汽車電磁兼容存在問題分析

    1、電機電纜沒有屏蔽

    2、接地線太細

    3、高低壓線交織在一起互相干擾

    4、電池外殼沒接地

    5、連接電纜也不是屏蔽的

    四、電動汽車電磁兼容性能的改進建議

    ★主機廠一定要重視電動汽車電磁兼容問題,不是僅滿足標準就行的;

    ★研究電磁兼容問題越早越好,特別是零部件開發;

    ★正向開發從零部件抓起,成功率比較高;

    ★那些利用舊底盤改裝的電動汽車很少有能通過的;

    ★亡羊補牢不是猶未為晚,而是得不償失,只有早早介入才能事半功倍;

    ★提高電磁兼容水平一定是要付出成本的,想省錢就別做車,免得害人害己。

    所有的連接電纜和接頭:

     

    ●可導電外殼是否接地?

    ●動力接插件是否有屏蔽措施?

    ●ECU控制信號電纜也要屏蔽!

    ●動力電纜是否屏蔽?

    ●輪轂電機輻射更大!

     

    B級電壓電氣設備的外露可導電部分,包括外露可導電的遮欄和外殼,應當連接到電平臺以保持電位均衡。電位均衡可有效抑制地電流的干擾。

    建議:

    ●建立自己的研發實驗室

    ●檢測的數據是否有價值?車輪的啟動扭矩都在數萬牛米,輪轂根本達不到;

    ●電器如何布局很重要。

    網友評論文明上網理性發言,請遵守評論服務協議
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